Thursday, January 23, 2020
Environmental Policy and the Government The purpose of the United States' public policy law is to implement restrictions in an effort to solve problems, which is shown with the Clean Water Act and employed to reform the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The United States government is noble in its efforts to preserve the environment through these acts, but the internal structure of public policy often retards these acts' effectiveness. This essay will explore ways in which factors such as horizontal implementation and the divided government affects the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Before one can discuss how these policies affect environmental legislation, a brief description of each must first be lucidly explained. When our government was created, a system of checks and balances was implemented to make sure that no one part of government acquires more power than others. Although this limits the power of anyone person in government, it often slows down the ability of government because a consensus can be hard with a g reat number people collaborating. Horizontal implementation pertains to the implementation with the federal government. There are specific concerns that exists which includes: the breakdown of coordination due to the largest structure of the federal government, language difficulties, the lack of control due to the threat of success by one particular agency, different perspectives, and direct change of intention due to factors such as voter pressure. It's astounding that in the heart of all this madness that anything can be accomplished at all, but thanks to the determination to be re-elected, things have work their way down the federal level or else the person in power will be impeached. Now the question is, what exactly is the Endangered Species Act? An animal is endangered if it is in danger of becoming extinct throughout all or most of its natural range in the wild. An animal is threatened if it is very likely to fall into the endangered category in "the foreseeable future". Endangered species have the possibility of generating boundless resources for the human race including medical uses, research purposes, and atmospheric contributions- namely oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. The act also sets aside land to protect endangered species. For example, many acres of old growth forest have been set-aside in an effort to preserve the Northern spotted owl. So far, the act has been successful in helping to re-establish populations of the American alligator, the California condor, the Black-footed ferret, and many species of endangered sea turtles.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Being a prominent leader during the Civil Rights movement was a perilous position to occupy. Very few people have the guts to make themselves the face of a movement, and even fewer succeed at it. Ralph Abernathy was an American Civil Rights activist who advocated equality alongside Martin Luther King Jr. and many others. Ralph Abernathy strived to help establish a more equal and welcoming America for all.Abernathy went on a journey to help change the way America is today and help create a more equal America for all, regardless of race or ethnicity. Ralph Abernathy began gaining the skills to be a leader at a young age, and exemplified those skills by leading multiple demonstrations. Ralph Abernathy was born on March 11, 1926, in Linden, Alabama. He was born into a time of social inequality and race segregation. Abernathy served in the United States Army during WWII and served as a platoon Sergeant, leading his own group of soldiers. After being discharged from the Army, he enrolled a t Alabama State University (ASU).While attending ASU he began to notice how the university was segregated. He gained fame when he started his first demonstrations, protesting the lack of heat and hot water in his dormitory and the dreadful food served in the cafeteria. Later, in 1951, he was called to the Civil Rights Movement when he became the pastor of the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. As pastor he mentored Martin Luther King Jr. as a minister of a nearby church. They formed a close friendship that would carry on for the rest of their lives.Abernathy developed a leadership role from the start of his life which helped lead him into his role as one of the biggest Civil Rights advocates America had ever had. Abernathy organized, created, and lead multiple different protest and organizations to help the Civil Rights Movement. One of The biggest protests he organized was the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Abernathy organized it with the help of Martin Luther King Jr. and toget her they lead the biggest boycott of the whole Movement. Ã¢â¬Å"It was decided that black people in Montgomery would refuse to use the buses until passengers were completely integratedÃ¢â¬ (Simkin).This protest was his call to action and one of his main contributions to the movement. Another one of Abernathys main contributions to the Civil Rights Movement was that he founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Martin Luther King Jr. was president of the organization and Abernathy was secretary treasurer. Ã They worked together in helping to desegregate America andÃ teaching people how to stand up for themselves and protest non- violently. The biggest trial that Abernathy went through was when his church was Ã¢â¬Å"siegedÃ¢â¬ by white supremacists. 1,500 men and woman were surrounded and Abernathy was willing to give himself up to save the innocent people stuck in the church.Ultimately, he did not end up sacrificing himself, but this was also a test of his character. Ã¢â¬Å"Over the next few years Abernathy was arrested nineteen timesÃ¢â¬ (Simkin). Abernathy proved himself to be a dedicated, powerful, and resourceful leader. As the Civil Rights Movement progressed, Abernathy's role became a less dire. When Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated, Abernathy took over the role as president of the SCLC. Ralph Abernathy led Ã¢â¬Å"daily demonstrations in May and June 1968, just a month after King's assassinationÃ¢â¬ (Kirkland). Some of the important last demonstrations he led were the: Poor Peoples March in Washington D.C. in May, 1968, Atlanta sanitation workers strike in 1968, and lastly the Charleston Hospital workers strike in 1969.Abernathy retired his position as president of the SCLC in 1977. He then ran for a spot in the Georgia Congressional Seat. He was unsuccessful in the running yet continued advocating peace until his retirement. Abernathy's journey came to an end and he retired his title as a leader of the Civil Right s Movement. To conclude, Ralph Abernathy was a dedicated Civil Rights Activist who advocated equality and justice for all. Alongside many others, he accomplished impressive feats that once seemed unreachable. He went on a journey towards helping America become a more equal country. He was tested to his limits and proved himself to be a worthy, dedicated, and powerful leader.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Freedom of Speech Vs. Censorship: Children on the Internet The internet is a very controversial communication device in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. If desired, one could find information on nearly any topic they choose. Censorship and free speech is a widely discussed topic when dealing with the current freedom of the internet especially when dealing with young minds. Should the internet have censored topics which would be illegal to post and/or view freely by children? Should the internet be a free-for-all arena in which anyone could do as they wish without judgment of others opinions and views imposing on their own? So far in class and in the text Gift of Fire by Sara Baase we have seen many issues dealing with Freedom of Speech and the internet.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a result of this and the international span of the internet, it is hard for the FCC to be an overseer of the medium. Certain controversial laws have attempted to set in place regulations that censor ethically and socially dubious materials from publication on the web. The topic that has been at the forefront of debate deals with obscene materials. This is a heated topic because the definition of obscenity is very vague and subject to interpretation. What is considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"obsceneÃ¢â¬ can be viewed very differently depending on ones personal morals, beliefs, and values. For example, a parent who is highly religious and living in the United States may view nudity on cable television as obscene and pornographic for their child to view, while a person with the same religious beliefs living in Europe or another part of the world may just view this as art or entertainment. This is due to the difference in societal views on obscenity. To get to the root of what is considered obscene, a test for judging obscene material was set in the case of Miller v. California. This modern test for obscenity consists of three parts: Ã¢â¬Å"(1) the proscribed material must depict or describe sexual conduct in a patently offensive way, (2) the conduct must be specifically described in the law, and (3) the work must,Show MoreRelatedGovernments Censoring Internet Content1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespros and cons of government involvement in controlling the content of the Internet. Everyday technology is getting more sophisticated, meaning that nowadays it is easy to explore about a certain issue via online connection and be near the world. In the present, as long as you have Internet connection, you have the ability to have access to all kind of information that is posted on Internet. There is a huge debate whether internet should be regulated or not, and this is excepted to continue in the upcomingRead More The Controversy Over Inte rnet Censorship Essay1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Controversy Over Internet Censorship Ã Ã Ã Ã For many people, using the Internet has become practically a new way of life, especially for college students and the like.Ã Various types of information can be accessed at the touch of a button: anything from encyclopedias, to surveys and essays, to articles from magazines, and adult sites.Ã Anyone who pays for their Internet service is usually offered space for his or her own web page, and even many free services provide space for personal webRead MoreEssay Arguing the Opposition of Censorship867 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArguing the opposition of Censorship For centuries, government nations and society have been withholding certain pieces of information from the public to ensure safety and prevent catastrophic out bursts; this detainment of public knowledge is called censoring. Censorship started in the early twentieth century, when profane literature began to surface in the wake of World War I; ever since then its been a normal part of all society. Without the use of censorship and the methods used to sustain informationRead More Censorship and the Internet Essay1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinformation available on the internet many people believe that some of this information should be censored by the United States Government. Whos to say what should be accessible and what should not? Where does it start and stop? Does internet censorship make a nation a safer place to live? There are many countries that donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the use of the internet at all and some countries only censor what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want their citizens to kno w. Daniel Calingaert said Ã¢â¬Å"The internet has provided greater spaceRead MoreAnalysis Of The Stimulus Material Given I Saw A Relationship Between Mexico And The United States Essay2124 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesintroduction of the Internet many governments need to change. This change would come through passing different laws which would censor the Internet and in doing so, limit freedom of speech, because this is widely controversial in the US. I began to look at why this is so controversial. According to Andrea Leadsom, a Conservative Member of Parliament for South Northamptonshire, the Internet should be censored for the kids. She states this because of the many inappropriate websites on the Internet, making itRead MoreOn January 1, 2016, The Institute Of Contemporary History1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshad to contend with a lot of criticism due to their strong censorship of Mein Kampf. According to one commentator, letting people read the book and make their mind meditate upon its content could do more to fight fascism rather than strict censorship (Horn). Unfortunately, not many governments view censorship in this light. In the current digital age, it is extremely hard to completely block the distribution of any book. In fact, censorship often raises the curiosity of the public, leading to an evenRead More Pornography on the Internet Essay1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPornography on the Internet The Internet is a method of communication and a source of information that is becoming popular among those who are interested in the information superhighway. The problem with this world we know as Cyberspace, the Ã¢â¬ËNet, or the Web is that some of this information, including pornographical material and hate literature, is being accessible to minors. Did you know that 83.5% of the images available on the Internet are pornographical? Did you know that the InternetÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreA Review of the Issues Surrounding Internet Censorship and Cross-National Information Conflict2681 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesa brief review of the government censorship over internet, which is turning into a national dilemma as well as the cross-national conflict which affect the global businesses. Nowadays, internet censorship is widely accepted standard regulation that controls any information available on the internet and by using filtering tools to prevent people from accessing materials that are considered to be inappropriate. While government support the use of internet censorship as a protection of public securityRead MoreEssay on Freedom of Cyber-Speech2082 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesFreedom of Cyber-Speech Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Freedom of speech has always been an important issue in American society.Ã With the advent of the Internet as a high-speed communication device, this issue has become even more prominent in recent years.Ã This paper will explore the issue of whether the Internet should be censored. Additionally, it will investigate possible methods for undertaking this censorship. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since 1787, the Constitution has been integral part of American society.Ã TheRead MoreThe Case Of Naked 1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimage could be captured and shared. When Nadia s coworker one day captures a video of her sunbathing nude and shares it on the internet she begins to be harassed and her mom seems to abandon her. Nadia s co - worker, it is was unethical for her to take the video of Nadia and post it on the internet. The co - worker knew who Nadia was but decided to put it on the internet for the world to see. As her co - worker, he or she oversteps their boundaries of respecting work relationships. The co - worker
Monday, December 30, 2019
Gibbs, David Kolb, and Jenny Moon, highlighting why Gibbs is the most appropriate model for students studying NVQ at levels 2and3 in Health and Social Care. Reflection is the process of using reasoning to connect both current and previous experiences so as to understand and define experience based on our accumulated and synthesized knowledge. Reflective Practice can be understood in theoretical terms as deriving from the work of Donald Schon, an educational theorist - 'reflection in action' (Schon, 1983), and has developed through what is now usually termed the experiential learning process as described and represented diagrammatically by David Kolb (Kolb, 1984) which will be further elaborated in the later part. Reflective writing is the narrative mode of analysis of the processes outlined - it explores not only what the experience was, but considers the meaning the writer attached to it at the time and subsequently, and how this meaning is likely to influence action in the future. Thus reflective writing may contribute to continued professional development in a number of ways. The process of writing reflectively may in itself be an important step in an individual's attempt to make sense of her/his practice (Coles, 2002). In this paper, three reflective writing models namely by Gibbs (1998), David Kolb, and Jenny Moon will be discussed. We will write a custom essay sample on Reflective Writing Models of Gibbs, David Kolb, and Jenny Moon or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Throughout the discussion, the elements of these models, as well as their pros and cons, will be illustrated together. The pros and cons of the different models are set in cases where there is under the supervision and without. In each case setting, pros and cons are in the context for classroom sizes of one, two and many. This is applicable for the models and the best singled out for the healthcare industry. generalizing and conceptualizing at Stage 3. At this point, the experience may be seen as an isolated example or as part of a pattern and ideas, and theories may begin to form about what the pattern is.
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Justice is not rigid and unchanging like so many want to believe. For the Ancient Greeks in the 8th century, blood justice is the only way to settle disputes. By the mid-400s BCE, there are glimpses of what will later become a trial by jury in a democratic judicial system. AeschylusÃ¢â¬â¢ plays show a distinct shift from blood justice to a more democratic system. Even Homer, when writing his epic works, seems to hint at a better way to resolve conflict than the Ã¢â¬Å"eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ mentality. The Iliad acts as book ends to the transformation of blood justice to a trial by jury as presented by The Oresteia; and that transformation positively influences how Western culture deals with justice. Blood justice to the Ancient Greeks is their way of enacting retribution on parties that did them wrong. The punishment required by blood justice must fit the crime committed, Ã¢â¬Å"Act for act, wound for woundÃ¢â¬ life for a life; and that leads to many turning to their rage as a to ol to help them justify their actions (Agamemnon 1555). The Iliad opens with Ã¢â¬Å"Rage-Goddess, sing the rage of PeleusÃ¢â¬â¢ son AchillesÃ¢â¬ (Iliad i.1). It is AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ rage that is called upon and drives his actions through the entire work. AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ rage is to right a great wrong done to him, but it comes at a deadly cost. Patroclus begs to be sent into battle to help the Greeks fight. He wants to Ã¢â¬Å"bring some light of victory to the ArgivesÃ¢â¬ by donning AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ armor to boost morale and drive back the Trojans (Iliad xvi.43-49).Show MoreRelatedScarlet Letter Rough Draft : The Romantic Element Of Reverence1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesoccurring roughly from the early to mid 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, was the period of reformation that shaped the society into one that valued latitude over order; this contrasted from the rigid, legalistic Puritan society that had been prevalent prior to the Romantic era. Through the newfound freedom of expression that was introduced during this period, many literary pieces that reflected these ideas began to surface. Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s The Scarlet Letter and James Russell LowellÃ¢â¬â¢s The First Snowfall exemplify the romanticRead More Utopia in Gulliver Travels and Paradise Lost Essay2460 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesthis land is an island inhabited by horse like creatures called Houyhnhnms who rule over man like beasts called Yahoos. For Milton, the Garden of Eden before the Fall of man represents Paradise. In it, Adam and Eve are pure and innocent, untested and faithful to God. The American Heritage Dictionary defines utopia as an ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects. And while Houyhnhnm Land and the Garden of Eden may seem like ideally perfect places, they are not. IndeedRead MoreEssay about Justice On Trial in Kafkas The Trial3831 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesJustice On Trial in Kafkas The Trial There is no such thing as justice - in or out of court.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Clarence Darrow i Most often critically interpreted as a search for Divine justice, Kafkas The Trial, a fragmented and unfinished novel, appears to leave us with the same impression as the words above of Clarence Darrow.Ã In other words, there is no justice.Ã This assessment of Divine justice by Kafka works on two levels.Ã On one level, he is illustrating the helpless nature of the individualRead MoreThe Case Of The Prosecution Of Wartime Sexual Violence During The Break Up Of Yugoslavia1925 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesargue that it is important we move away from a sense of identity as essential, primary and cohesive because the emergence of more complex schools of thought has allowed us to see the multiplicity of the groups in which people belong. By doing so, the oppression of more groups of people can be noticed and mitigated. However, in saying this it is also crucial we come to understand that in some circumstances, pointing out all of the numerous identities that can exist may also prove to b e detrimental- thisRead MoreComparing Plato and Aristotles Acquisition of Ethical Understanding3048 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pages shape our lives and how is it acquired? Ethics applies to both us and the people around us and so is both politically important and important to the individual. Plato and Aristotle had contrasting opinions on both what ethics is, how it is useful and who can obtain it. I have chosen to focus on justice when considering the acquisition of ethics as I think that the two philosophers treat justice in increasingly different ways and that its relation to ethics as a subjectRead MoreHow Do I Explain Behaviour.3312 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesfocus on the social behaviour of people, yet each has a particular orientation. Anthropologists usually study past cultures and preindustrial societies that continue today as well as the origins of men and women; this knowledge is used to examine contemporary societies, including even industrial societies. Economists explore the ways in which people produce and exchange goods and services, along with money and other resources. Historians are concerned with the peoples and events of the past and theirRead MoreThe Phenomenon Of Violent Political Islamism3203 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesprograms based on Islamic principles and concepts. They aim to implement Islamic law (Sharia) in both the public and private domain. Islamism is often mobilised in existing political issues, and has become Ã¢â¬Å"a vehicle and vocabulary for the expression of many different agendas in the Muslim worldÃ¢â¬ . It is the most dominant ideology in the Muslim world. While not all political Islamism is violent, it is undeniable that violent extremism occurs in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia. In this essayRead More A Dystopian Future in Brave New World Essay examples4100 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pages(genetically engineered to exist in one of five classes and condition to believe that the class within which they fall is the best one for them) lose their will to rebel against the capitalistic class-divisions of their society.Ã Psychological mottoes and rigid class divisions have replaced traditional societal values such as family, religion and freedom.Ã A wonder drug that removes all psychological pain, the pursuit of carnal pleasures, and the replacement of identity and soul with idol worship of a HenryRead MoreDefining a Role-Based Organization6315 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesother ways to classify organizations that are also changing with the times? Are role-based organizations the best indicators of what can be expected in the technolo gical world of Work 2.0? These questions are beginning to be asked by a variety of people as they look more seriously at the kinds of organizations that underlie the work that is being done today. The influences of technology and communication are the major reasons why of course, but they are only selected elements of broader changes thatRead MoreThe Legend of Sleepy Hollow - Summary and Analysis11462 Words Ã |Ã 46 Pagesfrom one person to another, is in the telling, the enjoyment of the tale. On the one hand, we are critical readers, because otherwise we would not figure out who is playing the role of the horseman. On the other hand, we shouldnt act like a boring schoolmaster but like a true listener, enjoying the tale. Crayon almost seems to be challenging the reader to enjoy the story even though he doubts most of it, for in the postscript to the story, in which we find out that the previous narrator does not even
Saturday, December 14, 2019
The author did a magnificent Job to persuade my thinking toward health care system in the United States that health care should be considered as a fundamental right to all U. S. Citizens. We will write a custom essay sample on Effective Persuasion Week Six Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s essay was easy to follow, well constructed, and straight-forward to his topic sentence. Writer had a strong introduction, supportive points, and a conclusion. The author provided enough facts to support his [her argument regarding health insurance should be accepted as basic right for all the U. S. Citizens Just like education. Health care converges are very expensive that a normal person cannot effort. I like the fact he presented in his/ her writing that even citizens with health insurance will still end up paying out of their pocket. Insurance companies more concerns about their profits than providing health coverage. There is always a waiting list or have to wait in line to see a doctor even if you are covered by insurance. The entire U. S citizens have to stand up and fight for their rights. I also legalized that the author did not use any I statements, which means the author is not bias. That is true that having health care system to the U. S. Citizens will save many lives and courage the health of all Americans. I will be using feedback from Written to make my persuasive essay more effective. WrestlingÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback helps to fix some of the common grammar errors such as leaving out commas, right words choices; using awkward construction such as Ã¢â¬Å"his/herÃ¢â¬ , spelling check, and much more can help me to make my persuasive essay more effective. Written also recommend avoiding using first and second person such as I and You in sentences. With the help of Written my essay will be grammar error free, which will sound much better when the reader will be reading it. My essay will persuade my audience every effectively. I will make sure my essay is error free and well constructed. I will be using all sorts of sentences types in my essay to ensure my audiences do not get bored or lose his/her interest while reading my essay. I will be providing strong facts and examples to support my topic sentence. To make sure my essay is not bias I will ensure not to use gender pronouns such as Ã¢â¬Å"he,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"she,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"him/her,Ã¢â¬ or any of these substitutions. Use of gender pronouns is awkward in academic writing and can divert the audiences from the point you are trying to make. To fix this dilemma I will be using plural nouns such Ã¢â¬Å"theirÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"they. Ã¢â¬ I will ensure not to use Ã¢â¬Å"lÃ¢â¬ statement sentences such as Ã¢â¬Å"l thinkÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"l believeÃ¢â¬ to make my essay sound opinionated and ensure to provide both side of the stories so the audience do not think the my essay is biased. By Sizing How to cite Effective Persuasion Week Six Assignment, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Megaloblastic anemias ?Definition: groups of anemias characterized by macrocytosis (in the peripheral blood) and megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow. ?The megaloblasts are large blasts Ã¢â¬â bone marrow. ?In periphery= macrocytosis= macrocytic anemia ?Cause: IMPAIRED DNA SYNTHESIS due to folate/ B12 deficiency ? Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine;methionine is necessary for the synthesis of myeline; B12 deficiency will explain the neurological manifestation, because of demyelination. Also B12 is involved in the reaction that transforms folic acid from inactive form (methyl TH4) in the active form (TH4). ?Folic acid is involved in biosynthesis of nucleic acids (DNA) DNA synthesis impairment: ?Affects tissues with rapid turnover: hematopoietic precursors, gastrointestinal epithelial cell ? Takes longer for nucleus to mature, but cytoplamic synthesis is not affected = Larger cells = megaloblastic haematopoiesis Megaloblastic changes in the b one marrow (BM): ?On the erythroid line: abnormal precursors of erythrocytes called megaloblasts (large cells) ? On the granulocytic line: gigantic metamyelocytes On the megacariocytic line: large megacariocytes, with polilobulated nucleus. We will write a custom essay sample on Megaloblastic Anemia or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page ?Because of the destruction of the abnormal precursors in the BM (ineffective erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, megacariopoiesis) on the hemogram we have macrocytic anemia/ leucopenia/trombocytopenia. ?On the peripheral blood smear: macrocytes, hypersegmented neutrophils. Source for both B12 and folate: exogenous. B12: ?Source: animal (meat, dairy products); usually dietary intake far exceeds needs = a deficiency is almost always due to malabsorbtion (exception: true vegetarians and their breast-fed infants). ?1 ? g is necessary every day. Liver deposits last about 3-5 years. ?Serum level: 200-600pg/ml. ?Absorption takes place in the terminal ileonum and is dependant of intrinsic factor (IF, CastleÃ¢â¬â¢s) secreted by parietal cells of the stomach, the same cells that secrete chlorhidric acid. ?Transcobalamin II is responsible for transporting vit. B12. Causes of deficiency I. Dietary deficiency (true vegetarians) II. Malabsorption: 1. Lack of intrinsic factor: pernicious anemia, ga strectomy, congenital defect of IF 2. Diseases of the terminal ileonum: tropical sprue, celiac diseases, Crohn disease, Resections, cancer, selective malabsorption of vit. B12 (Immerslund sdr. ) 3. Intestinal consumption of Vit. B12: PARAZITES (Botriocefal), bacteria 4. Drugs: colchicine, neomicine III. Transport and usage defects: congenital deficiency of TC II, excess of TC I and TC III with high affinity for vit. B12 (chronic myeloproliferative diseases), long exposure to NO, enzymathic defects (meilmalonuria, homocistinuria) Pernicious anemia- Addison Biermer disease ?Autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of auto-antibodies against parietal cells and against IF, resulting in atrophic gastritis and malabsorption of B12 due to IF deficiency. For the autoimmune mechanism plede the presence of anti IF antibodies in 70% of the patients, the association with other autoimmune diseases ( Basedow disease) ? Onset after 40 years, higher incidence in nordic countries ? Patients present anemia, pallor, jaundice, glossitis, mild splenomegaly, neurological and psychiatric manifestations: paresthesias, weakness, dementia, incontinence, paraplegia. Labo ratory evaluation: macrocytic anemia (MCV100 fl) leucopenia, trombocytopenia blood smear: macrocytes, hypersegmented neutrophils reticulocytes-low BM: megaloblastic changes LDH ^, low serum cobalamine (